Any person with credible information about an attack on journalist Namal Perera, a co-ordinqtor of the Sri Lanka Press Institute (SLPI), on 30 June in Colombo is invited to send it to the International Press Freedom Mission by fax, email or telephone.The Publishers and Editors Guild of Sri Lanka has offered a reward of 5 million rupees (more than 45,000 dollars) for information leading to the arrest of those responsible.Six men in a white van tried to kidnap Perera on 30 June as he was driving in a vehicle with British embassy employee Mahendra Ratnaweera. The assailants broke the vehicle’s windows in their attempt to grab Perera. “It is you, Namal, we are going to kidnap,” one of them cried in Sinhalese before they were all forced to flee because of protests from passers-by. Both Ratnaweera and Perera sustained injuries in the course of the attack.Two soldiers on a motorcycle approached the SLPI’s office the same day, while the Sinhalese nationalist newspaper Dinamina accused the SLPI of sending members of the Tamil Tiger rebels abroad to prepare attacks.A journalist who has specialised in military matters, Perera is one of those in charge of the SLPI’s press freedom campaign. He and another SLPI member have been in hiding since the 30 June attack.Anyone who witnessed the attack or have any credible information should send an email to [email protected], send a fax to +33 1 4523-1151 or leave a telephone message at + 33 6 3273-2108. The message can be in English, Sinhala or Tamil. Follow the news on Sri Lanka News to go further January 13, 2021 Find out more RSF_en Sri Lanka: Journalist manhandled by notorious police inspector currently on trial Sri LankaAsia – Pacific Sri Lanka: RSF signs joint statement on attacks against human rights defenders, lawyers and journalists News Receive email alerts July 5, 2008 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Appeal for information about Colombo attack on press freedom activist News Help by sharing this information Organisation Sri LankaAsia – Pacific July 29, 2020 Find out more News Sri Lanka: tamil reporter held on absurd terrorism charge July 15, 2020 Find out more
Twitter Facebook By Digital AIM Web Support – March 4, 2021 Pinterest Previous articleHundreds protest coup in Myanmar as resistance spreadsNext articleAgroaceite is Certified for 97.3% of Its Commitment to Good Manufacturing Practices Digital AIM Web Support WhatsApp WhatsApp Comtech Telecommunications Corp. Awarded Fast Tracking Ground Station Antenna System Contract from NASA Glenn Research Center TAGS Twitter Facebook Local News MELVILLE, N.Y.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Feb 24, 2021– February 24, 2021–Comtech Telecommunications Corp. (NASDAQ: CMTL) announced today, that during its second quarter of fiscal year 2021, its Mission-Critical Technologies group’s Space & Component Technology Division, which is part of Comtech’s Government Solutions segment, was awarded a contract from NASA’s Glenn Research Center for a Ka/S-band antenna system and radome to be installed at its new Aerospace Communications Facility in Cleveland, OH, supporting high bandwidth space and aeronautics communications research. “This competitive award of our advanced multi-band full-motion X/Y antenna system is a testament to our cutting-edge ground system solutions meeting our customers’ most challenging requirements,” said Fred Kornberg, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Comtech Telecommunications Corp. “We are proud to support NASA Glenn Research and NASA’s space exploration and aeronautics missions.” For over 40 years, Comtech’s Space & Component Technology (“SCT”) division, located in Cypress, California, has specialized in the supply of high reliability microelectronics, supplying EEE parts for use in satellite, launch vehicle and manned space applications. Combining longstanding resources in Cypress, with new locations in Plano, Texas and Hampshire, United Kingdom, SCT also provides services encompassing all aspects of ground station life cycle management to include requirements definition and analysis, design, development and integration of turnkey systems from antenna to data processing, civil works and construction, station installation and verification, operations and maintenance, and decommissioning at end of life. A full line of satellite tracking antennas from 30cm to 13m, as well as RF feeds, radomes and carbon fiber reflectors, all for LEO, MEO and GEO orbits, are also supplied to customers worldwide. For more information, visit www.comtechspace.com. The Mission-Critical Technologies group is focused on ensuring its customers are able to successfully carry out their mission, whether that be communicating in an austere environment on land or at sea, launching or tracking a satellite, or protecting the cyber security posture of their network. Comtech Telecommunications Corp. designs, develops, produces, and markets innovative products, systems and services for advanced communications solutions. The Company sells products to a diverse customer base in the global commercial and government communications markets. Certain information in this press release contains statements that are forward-looking in nature and involve certain significant risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from such forward-looking information. The Company’s Securities and Exchange Commission filings identify many such risks and uncertainties. Any forward-looking information in this press release is qualified in its entirety by the risks and uncertainties described in such Securities and Exchange Commission filings. PCMTL View source version on businesswire.com:https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210224005059/en/ CONTACT: Media Contact: Michael D. Porcelain, President and Chief Operating Officer 631-962-7000 [email protected] KEYWORD: NEW YORK UNITED STATES NORTH AMERICA INDUSTRY KEYWORD: AEROSPACE SECURITY MANUFACTURING SATELLITE AUDIO/VIDEO TRANSPORT OTHER TECHNOLOGY TELECOMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE NETWORKS INTERNET HARDWARE ELECTRONIC DESIGN AUTOMATION LOGISTICS/SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT VOIP TECHNOLOGY OTHER COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS SOURCE: Comtech Telecommunications Corp. Copyright Business Wire 2021. PUB: 02/24/2021 09:00 AM/DISC: 02/24/2021 09:01 AM http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210224005059/en Pinterest
January 29, 2020 1,173 Views Share Save Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Tagged with: Community Reinvestment Act House Financial Services Committee OCC Financial Services Committee Voices Opposition to Changes to CRA The Housing Financial Services Committee met with Joseph Otting, Comptroller of the Currency, Officer of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), on Wednesday to discuss proposed changes to the Community Reinvestment Act (RCA).Chairwoman of the Committee, Maxine Waters (D-California), voiced opposition to Otting’s proposal to update the legislation. “Under Comptroller [Joseph] Otting, the Community Reinvestment Act would become the Community Disinvestment Act. Such a radical change to the CRA demands a heightened level of public scrutiny,” she said. Waters said that proposed changes to the CRA by the OCC would lead to “widespread bank disinvestment from low and moderate communities.” She added the changes set forth by Otting would allow banks to receive a passing grade by doing the bare minimum. Waters said Otting was determined to push changes through “as soon as possible,” allowing just a 60-day comment period. However, all 34 Democrats on the Committee, as well as other advocates, requested a minimum 120-day comment period, which has been customary for prior bills. The CRA was enacted in the 1960s as a response to redlining—a practice where banks discriminated against prospective customers based primarily on where they lived, or their racial or ethnic background, rather than creditworthiness.Under the current CRA framework, the primary banking regulators—specifically the OCC, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and the Federal Reserve—conduct regular examinations to evaluate banks’ activities to provide credit, services, and make investments in low and moderate-income communities where the banks operate. The act only applies to banks with federally insured deposits. The legislation was last updated in 1995. Committee member Patrick McHenry said reform of the CRA is a “long-time coming.” “The rise of mobile and online banking helps more consumers and communities than the CRA was intended to serve,” he said. McHenry added that current CRA regulations are “outdated and technologically ineffective.” Also voicing opposition was Committee Member Gregory Meeks, as he noted there is still evidence of discrimination in lending—something the CRA was meant to solve. “Your proposal decouples CRA from outcomes for intended communities, discounts the value of direct lending in mortgages to low and moderate-income communities and communities of color, cuts out community organizations that work directly with these targeted communities, and is just not supported by data,” Meeks said of Otting’s proposal. Meeks added that numerous banks are opposed to the plan and community groups have called possible changes “betrayal of the original intent of the CRA.” Otting, in response to the accusations against his proposal, said his intent is to strengthen the CRA, not weaken it. He said this proposal can achieve that by utilizing four metrics: Clarify what counts, clarify where it counts, measure CRA performance, and make reporting transparent and timely. He said that Congress was informed of a proposal to change the CRA in 2007 and the Department of the Treasury received recommendations in both 2017 and 2018. “This has been a lengthy and transparent process and has been consistent with the letter and spirit of the Administrative Procedures Act,” Otting said. He added that more than 90% of the comments his office received said the CRA lacks objectivity, fairness, and transparency. Otting called the claim his proposal would permit redlining “blatantly false.” “Nothing in this proposal changes the agency’s authority to enforce fair lending laws to prevent discrimination and redlining,” he said. He also said claims his proposal would use a single metric to determine a bank’s CRA rating are false. Otting said his proposal requires examiners to use retail lending tests for each product. Examiners would then evaluate the impact of a banks’ CRA activity by measuring the dollar value of that activity in each assessment and that overall bank. Among the concerning aspects of the CRA to Waters is the ability of banks to receive CRA credit for financing sports stadiums. Otting said this practice has been a part of the legislation since 1993. His current proposal doesn’t change that but noted the OCC is open to suggestions. Waters, however, objected to this notion, saying sports stadiums located in opportunity zones come with little regard to how they impact low and moderate-income communities. She also questioned whether the Fed signed off on this proposal, to which Otting said no. Otting, however, said later in the hearing that he has been engaged with the Fed “thousands of times” on this matter. She said that Otting and his office “do not wish to work with us,” as members of the committee came to a board meeting to let their opposition to possible changes be known.“You’ve decided you will work with no one. This is your proposal. This is what you want. This is what we get,” Waters said. “Forget about the Congress of the United States or anybody else—that you know better than anybody else.” The latest proposal clarifies the approach of the bill and, for the first time since 1977, lists eligible investments that qualify for CRA credit. Otting added his office will not extend the comment period to 120 days. He said the document was published on December 9, 2019, and will be closed on March 9, 2020—leaving it open for comment for 88 days. in Daily Dose, Featured, Government, News Mike Albanese is a reporter for DS News and MReport. He is a University of Alabama graduate with a degree in journalism and a minor in communications. He has worked for publications—both print and online—covering numerous beats. A Connecticut native, Albanese currently resides in Lewisville. Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago About Author: Mike Albanese Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Home / Daily Dose / Financial Services Committee Voices Opposition to Changes to CRA Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Sign up for DS News Daily Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Subscribe Previous: Lima One Capital Expands Leadership Next: The Mortgage Patch and Default Risk Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Community Reinvestment Act House Financial Services Committee OCC 2020-01-29 Mike Albanese Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Related Articles Print This Post
News PSNI and Gardai urged to investigate Adams’ claims he sheltered on-the-run suspect in Donegal By News Highland – January 28, 2011 Google+ WhatsApp RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Dail hears questions over design, funding and operation of Mica redress scheme Previous articleInquest told how woman choked to death on nursing unitNext articleBoxing – McCloskey v Khan Off News Highland An inquest into the murder of Republican double agent Denis Donaldson was further adjourned in Letterkenny beyond an anticipated hearing date.Coroner Denis McCauley had expected to fix a date for a full hearing but he said he was still unable to reach a decision on what kind of inquest to hold because of the arrival of late documents.Another “pre-inquest” hearing has been fixed for May 5th before he can decide on a date for a full hearing.It was the sixth adjournment of the inquiry into how Donaldson, 56, was murdered in his remote home at Classey, Cloghercor, near Glenties, Co. Donegal on April 4th 2006.Garda Superintendent Michael Finan asked for a further adjournment because the criminal investigation was still active. He gave the coroner an assurance that he was not adopting delaying tactics.The coroner told gardai and legal representatives of Donaldson’s family that he expected an exchange of documents before Christmas but he didn’t receive them until eight days ago.He felt he needed more time to study them, and receive further submissions, before he could decide between fixing a “standard” hearing that would decide what killed Donaldson or a more extensive inquest under European law as sought by the family.He said that even if the Supt had not asked for the adjournment they were nowhere near an inquest because he didn’t think he had enough information.Donaldson, a senior Sinn Fein figure who headed his party’s support team at Stormont and who had been operating as a British spy for 20 years, was shot four times. Donaldson inquest adjourned again HSE warns of ‘widespread cancellations’ of appointments next week Pinterest WhatsApp Pinterest Dail to vote later on extending emergency Covid powers Facebook Google+ Man arrested in Derry on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences released Twitter Twitter Facebook Man arrested on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences in Derry
Google+ Previous articleTanaiste says government will look at building on Irish Open successNext articleBody recovered from River Foyle News Highland Minister Joe McHugh along with Housing Minister Damien English TD met with members of the Mica Action Group this morning to discuss the Mica resolution process.Minister English has informed the Mica Action Group that experts will examine how best to repair the damage to homes in Donegal by implementing the recommendations of the technical report, with this consultation period by the NSAI due to complete next Wednesday 18th July.A period of time will then be needed for engineers and technical experts to consider the submissions, following which Minister English hopes to be in a position to act on their final recommendations.Minister McHugh said: “I want to thank Minister English for his ongoing commitment to the people of Donegal on this issue, and for coming up to meet with members of the Mica Action Group again this morning to update them on the current ongoing process.“I want to compliment the work of the Mica Action Group for their continuous commitment in getting us this far in this process. We will continue our constructive engagements with the group, their families and all affected homeowners in the County to ensure this positive progress continues, and I will continue to lobby in government both Housing Ministers Damien English and Eoghan Murphy and their Department officials.” News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th Twitter Facebook WhatsApp Pinterest DL Debate – 24/05/21 Facebook WhatsApp Google+ By News Highland – July 13, 2018 Arranmore progress and potential flagged as population grows Twitter Housing Minister meets Mica Action Group Journey home will be easier – Paul Hegarty Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic Pinterest RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Harps come back to win in Waterford Homepage BannerNews
Plans to boost recruitment in the transport industry have been unveiled tocombat a predicted shortfall of up to 80,000 lorry drivers over the next twoyears. The package of proposals, published by the Freight Transport Association, isin response to the implementation of the Working Time Directive for mobileworkers that will limit driver hours to a maximum of 48 in 2005. The recruitment initiative includes a plan for a young driver trainingscheme, aimed at helping people achieve their HGV licence at an earlier age.Also proposed is a MOD re-settlement plan to encourage former militarypersonnel to become civilian lorry drivers and a scheme to help unemployed peoplereceive the HGV training they need. John Paterson, group HR director at Christian Salvesen, welcomed theproposals outlined in the FTA’s report Take a Step Up. He said: “Fast-tracking young drivers is a very good idea, as istargeting unemployed people. The Army is a traditional source of drivers forthe industry and should be revisited. We have put together a promotional videoand sent it to the Army. “We are also looking to enter into a pilot scheme where we will pay themilitary to train staff.” Paterson believes the industry needs to go beyond the recruitment initiativeand overhaul its image if it wants to retain its drivers. He said: “It isvery much a macho industry, with a long-hours low-pay culture. We need toimprove benefits – the industry is under-pensioned and has poor sick pay.” Daco 29 May 2014 at 9:57 pm # Lorry drivers recruitment plan unveiledOn 7 May 2002 in Military, Personnel Today Features list 2021 – submitting content to Personnel TodayOn this page you will find details of how to submit content to Personnel Today. We do not publish a… Previous Article Next Article One Response to Lorry drivers recruitment plan unveiled Related posts: Does any company still pay to train and recruit an employee? They can deduct small amounts of money from their monthly salary untill training is paid back over 5 years for example? British young drivers cant afford to pay £2500 to get their hgv licence.
Food Inspection Reports 3-23-17FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmail
× HAPPY BIRTHDAY, 4TH TO 8TH GRADE — Students from grades 4-8 from All Saints Catholic Academy celebrated birthdays in the month of September
The best way to understand the characteristics of the traditional breads of any particular country or region is to look at flour milled from the local grain. The cereal crops traditionally grown near the mill would once have defined the local bread, affecting the crumb, crust, flavour, breadth and volume of the loaf much more than skills alone ever could. So if you replace that local grain with imported flour, you instantly change the crumb and crust of the loaf it makes and, no matter what skills you apply to it, that loaf will never be the same again.The cereal economy across most of Europe in the 1930s resembled that of Britain in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, in that wheat was still milled close to where it was grown, white bread was predominantly the food of the rich and the city dwellers, and wholemeal the food of the poor and the country households, and both rye and barley were still commonly eaten. In Britain, however, changes in agriculture and technology that began 200 years earlier had hustled British baking on to a path at odds with the rest of Europe.The British agrarian revolution of the 18th century stirred the most defining change in the way farmland was managed, and the way grains like wheat and barley were grown and harvested. During this time, the older style of subsistence farming practised for hundreds of years was replaced, through enclosures that took the strips of land away from the rural poor and united them in larger, more efficient estates under the direct control of increasingly wealthy landowners. This, in turn, made it possible to introduce the new farming equipment invented at that time such as Jethro Tull’s horse-drawn hoe, and his drill that planted seeds low enough to stop the rain washing them away.Initially, these changes ensured that the first half of the 18th century was a period of relative prosperity. Wheat and barley harvests grew in both acreage and yield; increased yields and more animals to feed meant that more bran could be sold for animal feed, and a more refined, whiter flour could be marketed; and this became the dominant flour for bread-making. In 1700, rye flour accounted for about 40% of the bread of the common people; by 1800 it accounted for only 5%.The regulations for the sale price and quality of bread, known as the ’Assize of Bread’, defined loaves according to the coarseness of the flour used, typically ’white’ (the most expensive), ’wheaten’ and ’household’ (the least expensive). This, in effect, reduced the quality of household brown bread and increased the popularity of white. The prices set by the assize made it very difficult to sell brown bread at anything other than a loss, and some critics suspected that bakers made a poorer quality of household bread to promote higher-value white wheaten bread.The system of bread-making used in homes and bakeries at that time was a simple process that used a fermenting liquid, commonly called barm and usually made from the liquor extracted from soaked malted grains and boiled hops. The hops acted as an antibacterial addition and stopped the yeast liquid turning sour too quickly. A simple dough would be made, quite firm with a very small quantity of barm, and left for many hours to rise, after which it would be divided, shaped and baked. In France by comparison, during the same period, the dough mixing process was more complex, as hops and malt weren’t used to speed the fermentation and inhibit excess acidity: instead, the volume of the dough was increased in stages, as this kept the fermentation brisk and controlled the acidity. It wasn’t until the early 1800s in both Britain and France that a liquid ferment, what British bakers called a ’sponge’, became commonly used, a method believed to have been introduced to both countries by Viennese bakers.Sourness wasn’t avoided by all bakers. In Scotland, Wales, Cumbria and Lancashire, the practice of sowens-making where the husks of oats were left in a wooden bowl to ferment, and the liquid heated until it thickened slightly into a sour ’soup’ was common, and a flat oatmeal bread, known as sowens cakes, and later simply oatcakes, had left the locals with a taste for sour bread. If malted barley wasn’t available to speed the fermentation, then cooked potatoes were added, and this became typical of bakers in the Midlands. For the southern English, however, any trace of acidity or potato was frowned upon.A succession of poor wheat harvests after 1770, together with a rapidly rising population, led merchants to import grain from Europe. During the war with France (1793-1815), importation of grain from Europe became impossible, inflating grain prices in Britain and securing major landowners even more wealth.This situation unwound with the fall of Napoleon; cheap imported grain began to flood into the British market, almost halving the price within a matter of months, and Lord Liverpool and his government, the party of the landowners, sought ways to stop this. The 1815 Corn Laws were trade tariffs, which protected domestic grain from cheaper foreign imports; however, the British market was opened up again by their repeal in 1846, whereas the rest of Europe (apart from Belgium) retained tariffs on grain imports until at least the 1930s.At first, the introduction of imported, mainly European wheat worked in sympathy with the old style of British baking and complemented local wheat characteristics when used in small-scale bakeries with hand-mixing. But later on, a new kind of milling and dough mixing evolved that would enable the manufacture of bread in factories, and the whitest, softest and cheapest bread British workers had ever had access to.From the 1870s onwards, the importation into Britain of roller-milled flour from the US and Hungary changed the style of bread that could be made and slowly starved, and effectively closed, the traditional wind- and watermills of Britain. The flour was ultra-white and fine, due to the use of silk bolting cloths, and it was milled from new varieties of hard wheat, rich in gluten. This flour produced dough that was more resilient and extensible than that made with local grain, and though it lacked the same rich sweet flavour of native British wheat, it performed better when used in high-powered dough mixing machines, and became essential for the early plant baking industry that would dominate British bread-making during the 20th century. High tariffs protected the rest of Europe from importation of wheat and flour well into the 20th century, and this helped to protect the local milling and baking traditions.From this point on, the characteristics traditionally found in British regional bread-making the curious use of an ale-barm, the single long fermentation of a firm dough and the inevitable backnote of bitterness from the hops, the cream grey stone-milled flour, the use of rye, barley and oatmeal together with wholemeal wheat flour to make a maslin mixture began to vanish. Though the shapes of the loaves remained, the heart of the crumb and crust was lost. A small amount of home-baking continued, but given the higher number of women who were in full-time employment, compared to the rest of Europe, there was limited time and resources to bake at home.Effectively, a quest for wealth and modernity destroyed the traditions in British baking. Though the 20th century brought innovations, such as the Chorleywood Bread Process, electric ovens and refrigeration, the traditional methods and techniques once used to make British breads were already a faint memory by then. Today, young bakers are gradually unearthing and restoring the older techniques used in the 1800s, restarting old barm-making processes and working with farmers to grow forgotten, but once local varieties of wheat.Perhaps the legacy that British baking leaves the world at this point is the sobering thought that no matter how common and ordinary local skills and old ways seem next to the alluring gloss and promise of modern discoveries, it is only with hindsight that we can ever appreciate the benefits of the knowledge and skills used by other generations.l This is an extract from Dan Lepard’s chapter on British baking in the Dictionnaire Universel du Pain, edited by Jean-Philippe de Tonnac, published this month by Robert Laffont. The book is a country-by-country exploration of the history of bread-baking and is currently available only in French. Maslin barm bread The combination of a maslin flour mixture with an ale barm is a typical style used in Georgian and early Victorian bread-making. This would be made with the sieving from the milled wheat after most (or sometimes all) of the white flour had been removed, then mixed or ground again with rye, barley and oats. In medieval times, the labourer would have been given a mixture of these grains to eat and these could be milled together into flour. The combination gave the loaves an earthy strong flavour. The proportions of grains used varied according to the season and harvest. Prior to the early 1800s, much of the wheat grown in southern Britain resembled wheat grown in France. Seeds were exchanged and sold between both countries, so today’s French flour is arguably closer in performance to old British flour than the modern imported hybrids used in the UK. The amount of barm varied according to the time available for bread-making, but I prefer a high level to accentuate the flavour of hops and malted barley.1. The 24-48 hour beer barmDark ale500ml Wholemeal flour50gFresh yeast1g Optional: rye levain3gOne or two days before baking, whisk the ale and flour in a saucepan and bring just to the boil, no more. Then remove from the heat, spoon into a bowl and leave until absolutely cold. Stir in the yeast (and leaven, if using), cover the bowl, leave for 4 hours, then beat again and leave at 17C-23C for at least 24 hours.2. For the dough:The barm from above (550g), plus the flour mixture as follows: Strong white flour or type T55550gWholemeal flour75g Rye flour75g Fine-ground oatmeal75gFine salt 15g Water175g-200gTotal965g-990g Final temperature 20C – 23C.Method1. Mix the barm, flour and water to make a soft dough. Mix on 1st speed for 2 minutes, then leave 30 minutes. 2. Add salt and mix on 2nd speed for 8 minutes. Leave dough until risen by 50%, approximately 2 hours at 21C, giving the dough one fold after an hour. A longer fermentation at a lower temperature, 16C, is preferable but not essential.3. Shape dough into a ball, leave to rise on a floured board until risen by 50-75%. 4. Cut a cross in the centre and bake with steam at 225°C for 20 minutes, then remove steam and bake for a further 15-20 minutes. Traditionally the loaves would be “batch baked” in wooden frames, so that each loaf firmly pushes up against the loaves around it as it bakes, and can be torn apart once cool. Ale barm Sometimes just known as ’ale’ or ’yeast’, this could either be yeast skimmed off the top of a wooden vat of dark beer or it could be made in the bakehouse using a gelatinised mixture of wheat flour and water enriched with malt and hops, then seeded with a spoonful of old ale yeast. This latter method kept better and grew popular during the early 1800s.The earliest recipes for a white loaf, farmhouse or tin used locally milled white flour, typically high in natural sugars (maltose) and modest amounts of gluten. A spoonful of ale barm would be mixed with water and all of the flour into a firm dough and this would be left for 6-8 hours to rise before shaping, left to rise once more and then baked. The farmhouse baking tin, a deep-sided, oblong tin made in 1lb to 5lb lengths, appeared in the early 1800s and enabled more bread to be baked, as it reduced the floor space each loaf took. As ovens were kept hot, the upper crust tended to burn while the protected sides stayed pale, and this became a characteristic.